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  • 英语动词不规则变化大全!
    来源:私塾国际学府 发布时间:2015/7/10 17:20:26
    动词过去式、过去分词不规则变化让孩子抓狂?现在,都变成了有规律的东西,还担心孩子记不住吗?暑假里,值得花点时间让孩子掌握了!
    ★记忆法一:常见93个不规则动词的变化规律归纳如下:

    一、A—A—A型,即原形、过去式和过去分词三者都相同。(共9个)
    cost—cost—cost
    cut—cut—cut
    hit—hit—hit hurt—hurt—hurt
    let—let— let
    put—put—put
    read—read—read
    set—set—set
    shut—shut—shut

    二、A—B—B型,即过去式、过去分词相同。(共41个)
    1 过去式和过去分词都含有-ought。(3个)
    bring—brought—brought
    buy— bought—bought
    think—thought—thought
    2 词尾有-ild,-end时,只需把d变为t。(4个)
    build—built—built
    lend—lent— lent
    send—sent—sent
    spend—spent— spent
    3 过去式、过去分词都含有-aught。(2个)
    catch—caught—caught
    teach—taught—taught
    4 把-eep变为-ept。(3个)
    keep—kept—kept
    sleep—slept—slept
    sweep— swept—swept
    5 把-ell变为-old。(2个)
    tell—told—told
    sell—sold—sold
    6 过去式、过去分词都含有-elt或-ilt。(4个)
    smell—smelt—smelt
    spell—spelt—spelt
    feel—felt— felt
    spill—spilt—spilt
    7 过去式、过去分词都在原形词尾加t。(3个)
    learn—learnt—learnt
    mean—meant—meant
    spoil—spoilt—spoilt
    8 过去式、过去分词词尾是d。(4个)
    say—said—said
    pay—paid—paid
    lay—laid—laid
    hear—heard—heard
    9 改变元音字母。(11个)
    meet—met—met
    get—got—got
    sit—sat—sat
    find— found—found
    hold—held—held
    spit—spat—spat
    shine— shone—shone
    win—won—won
    hang—hung—hung
    dig— dug—dug
    lose—lost—lost
    10 改变辅音字母。(1个)
    make—made—made
    11 改变元、辅音字母。(4个)
    leave—left—left
    stand—stood—stood
    have(has)— had—had
    understand—understood—understood

    三、A—B—C型,即原形、过去式、过去分词都不相同。(共35个)
    1 i—a—u变化。(6个)
    begin—began—begun
    drink—drank—drunk
    sing— sang—sung
    ring—rang—rung
    swim—swam—swum
    sink— sank—sunk
    2 词尾为-ow,-aw时,过去式将其变为-ew,过去分词在其原形后加n。(5个)
    blow—blew—blown
    draw—drew—drawn
    grow— grew—grown
    know—knew—known
    throw—threw—thrown(show除外)
    3 词尾为“i+辅(1个)+e”,过去式将i变为o,过去分词多在原形后加n,若那个辅音字母为d或t,须双写d或t后加n。(4个)(give,hide除外)
    drive—drove—driven
    write—wrote—written
    ride— rode—ridden
    rise—rose—risen
    4 过去分词在过去式后加(e)n。(5个)
    break—broke—broken
    choose—chose—chosen
    freeze—froze—frozen
    speak—spoke—spoken
    wake—woke— woken
    5 过去分词由过去式加-ten构成。(1个)
    forget—forgot—forgotten
    6 过去分词由原形加(e)n构成。(6个)
    be—was(were)—been
    eat—ate—eaten
    fall—fell—fallen
    give—gave—given
    see—saw—seen
    hide—hid—hidden(hid)
    7 词尾为-ake时,过去式将其变为-ook,过去分词在原形词后加-n。(2个)
    take—took—taken
    mistake—mistook—mistaken
    8 原形、过去式和过去分词都不相同。(6个)
    do—did—done
    fly—flew—flown
    go—went—gone
    lie—lay—lain
    show—showed—shown
    wear—wore—worn

    四、A—A—B型,即过去式和原形相同。(1个)
    beat—beat—beaten

    五、A—B—A型,即过去分词和原形相同。(3个)
    come—came—come
    become—became—become
    run— ran—run

    六、情态动词型,只有原形和过去式,没有过去分词。(4个)
    can—could
    may—might
    will—would
    shall—should

    ★记忆法二:不规则动词相对于规则动词来说,难记得多,是最难对付的一类词。学生难学,老师难教。幸好它们不是杂乱无章的,可根据其中的一些内部规律来记忆。下面给大家介绍一种归纳记忆法,以期大家在攻克这一难关时,能收到事半功倍的效果。

    一、 原形、过去式、过去分词相同:
    cost/cut/hit/hurt/let/put/read/shut
    (细心的你一定会发现,这些词中大多数是以字母t结尾的。)

    二、 原形、过去式相同,过去分词不同:
    beat/beat/beaten

    三、 原形、过去分词相同,过去式不同:
    come/came/come become/became/become run/ran/run
    (come,become,属不规则变化,但welcome属规则动词,其过去式、过去分词为:welcomed,welcomed)

    四、 过去式,过去分词相同:
    (1) 去掉字母组合ee中的一个e
    meet/met/met feed/fed/fed
    (2) 去掉字母组合ee中的一个e,然后再在词尾加t
    feel/felt/felt sleep/slept/slept
    keep/kept/kept sweep/swept/swept
    (3) 词尾为的ll 去掉一个l加t
    spell/spelt/spelt smell/smelt/smelt spill/spilt/spilt
    (4) 过去式和过去分词以aught或ought结尾
    catch/caught/caught teach/taught/taught bring/brought/brought
    buy/bought/bought think/thought/thought
    (5) 将stand改为stood
    stand/stood/stood understand/understood/understood
    (6) 将ay改为aid
    lay/laid/laid pay/paid/paid say/said/said
    (7) 将d改为t
    lend/lent/lent send/sent/sent
    spend/spent/spent build/built/built
    (8) 将i改为a , o, u等
    sit/sat/sat spit/spat/spat
    dig/dug/dug win/won/won
    (9) 将ell改为old
    tell/told/told sell/sold/sold
    (10) 词尾加t
    learn/learnt/learnt mean/meant/meant
    dream/dreamt/dreamt spoil/spoilt/spoilt
    (11) 有两种过去式和过去分词, 一种是不规则的, 一种是规则的:
    learn/learnt/learnt learn/learned/learned
    shine/shone/shone shine/shined/shined
    hang/hung/hung hang/hanged/hanged
    smell/smelt/smelt smell/smelled/smelled
    burn/burnt/burnt burn/burned/burned
    light/lii/lit light/lighted/lighted
    (12) 其它
    have(has)/had/had hear/heard/heard
    shoot/shot/shot lose/lost/lost
    hold/held/held get/got/got(AmE gotten)
    find/found/found make/made/made
    leave/left/left

    五、三者均不同:
    (1) 过去式以ew结尾、过去分词以own结尾
    blow/blew/blown fly/flew/flown
    grow/grew/grown know/knew/known
    throw/threw/thrown
    值得注意的是:
    show/showed/shown或showed draw/drew/drawn
    (2)改i为a变成过去式、改i为u变成过去分词
    begin/began/begun drink/drank/drunk
    ring/rang/rung sing/sang/sung
    swim/swam/swum sink/sank/sunk
    (3)改i为o变成过去式,过去分词以n结尾
    drive/drove/driven write/wrote/written
    rise/rose/risen ride/rode/ridden
    (4) 原形后加n变成过去分词
    drive/drove/driven rise/rose/risen eat/ate/eaten
    give/gave/given fall/fell/fallen
    (5) 过去式后加n变成过去分词
    break/broke/broken choose/chose/chosen
    freeze/froze/frozen mistake/mistook/mistaken
    steal/stole/stolen speak/spoke/spoken
    take/took/taken wake/woke/woken(或woke)
    (6)其它
    be/was或were/been do/did/done forget/forgot/forgotten
    go/went/gone hide/hid/hidden see/saw/seen
    wear/wore/worn

    六、 有两种过去式和过去分词,但词义相同。
    wake/woke/woken (或woke) wake/waked/waked
    sink/sank/sunk sink/sunk/sunken

    七、动词因其过去式、过去分词有两种形式而产生不同词义:

    shine、hang的两种过去式和过去分词:
    shone/shone照耀shined/shined擦亮
    hung/hung悬挂hanged/hanged绞死

    八、两个既可以做过去式,又可以做动词原形的词
    lie躺卧lay/lain/lying(现在分词)
    lay放,下蛋laid/laid/laying
    find 找到、发现find/found/found
    found 创建,成立 found/founded/founded

    九、根据动词之间的词义联系来记忆
    (一)词义相对:
    (1) come/came/come来—— go/went/gone去
    (2) give/gave/given给——get/got/got(AmE gotten)获得
    (3) sleep/slept/slept睡觉—wake/woke/woken (或woke)
    或wake/waked/waked 醒来
    (4) rise/rose/risen上升、上涨、升起——fall/fell/fallen下降、落下、倒下
    sink/sank/sunk sink/sunk/sunken 沉下, (使)下沉
    (5) buy/bought/bought买—— sell/sold/sold出售, 卖
    (6) take/took/taken带去——bring/brought/brought 带来
    (7) teach/taught/taught教——learn/learnt/learnt
    或learn/learned/learned学习、学会
    (8) lose/lost/lost丢失、失败——find/found/found找到
    win/won/won赢得、(获)胜
    (9) stand/stood/stood站、立——sit/sat/sat坐
    (10) send/sent/sent 送、寄、发送——get/got/got获得、收到
    (二)词义相近:
    (1) beat/beat/beaten 打, 打败win/won/won赢得、获胜
    (2) understand/understood/understood 懂, 了解
    know/knew/known 知道, 了解, 认识
    (3) get/got/got(AmE gotten)变成、成为、变得
    become/became/become 变成, 成为, 变得
    go/went/gone变成turn/turned/turned变成
    (4) spend/spent/spent 花费、度过
    pay/paid/paid 支付、交纳
    cost/cost/cost花费、价值为
    take/took/taken花费
    (5) say/said/said说、讲
    speak/spoke/spoken说、演讲
    tell/told/told 告诉、说、吩咐、断定
    talk/talked/talked谈话, 讲, 谈论, 议论

    ★记忆法三:

    1.无变化,过去式与原形相同。
    let→let, put→put, hit→hit, must→must, set→set, beat→beat, cast→cast, cost→cost, cut→cut, hurt→hurt, read→red, shut→shut
    (shed→shed split→split spread→spread burst→burst)

    2.元音字母的变化。
    i→a: begin→began, drink→drank, ring→rang, sing→sang, swim→swam, give→gave, sit→sat, sink→sank
    i→o: drive→drove, ride→rode, shine→shone, write→wrote, rise→rose, win→won,
    (strive→strove arise→arose)
    i→ou: find→found (wind→wound, bind→bound, grind→ground)
    a→oo: take→took, shake→shook
    e→o: get→got, forget→forgot
    o→a: come→came, become→became
    oo→o: shoot→shot, choose→chose

    3.元音字母组合的变化。
    aw/ow/y→ew:draw→drew, blow→blew, grow→grew, know→knew, throw→threw, fly→flew

    4.元音字母和辅音字母都有变化。
    (1) sell→sold, tell→told, retell→retold
    (2) say→said, pay→paid, lay→laid, relay→relaid
    (3) sweep→swept, keep→kept, sleep→slept, creep→crept
    (4) bring→brought, buy→bought, think→thought, fight→fought
    (5) catch→caught, teach→taught
    (6) can→could, will→would, shall→should
    5.辅音字母变化。
    (1)build→built, send→sent, bend→bent, lend→lent, rend→rent, spend→spent
    (2)make→made, have→had, hear→heard
    (3)mean→meant, learn→learnt
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